Suka Kollus
Raised platforms for agriculture surrouded by water channels

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The typical guidebook to Bolivia describes the Altilano as a cold and unhospitable place unsuitable for agriculture, but Google Earth imagery shows a large variety of agricultural systems covering the whole of the Altiplano from the regions bordering Lake Titicaca down to Lake Poopo south of Oruro.

One of the ancient systems of agriculture was called "Suka Kollus", sometimes also called "Camellones" or "Waru Waru". Raised platforms were created and surrounded by water channels. The water collected heat in the day time and gave it off on the night time thus raising the local temperature. The water channels were dredged regularly and the mud spread upon the platform increasing the nutrients. The yield was considerably more than that of the agricultural methods introduced by the Spanish after the Conquest.

Many of the Suka Kollus lay abandoned for centuries as people were also taken off the land, collected into artificial villages or sent down the mines but experiments in modern times showed how productive the ancient systems had been.

suka kollus
Above, an example of the "suka kollus", raised fields surrounded by water channels. Photo: UNAR.

sukakollus
Above, suka kollus. Where some of the old sukka kollus were revived by prof Alan Kolata and Oswaldo Rivera, production of crops was greatly increased due to the influence of the water channels raising the local temperature also preventing destruction by frost. photo: UNAR.


sukakollus near Tiwanaku
Above, an example of the "suka kollus", irregular raised fields surrounded by water channels, now disused.

suka kollus north of lake Titicaca
Above, suka kollus in region just north of Lake Titicaca.

sukakollus illustration construction suka kollus illustration
Above, suka kollus illustrations of construction and use

sukakollus illustration construction suka kollus illustration
Above, illustration of construction and use.

sukakollus illustration construction suka kollus illustration
Above, suka kollus being reconstructed. Photos: UNAR

sukakollus illustration construction suka kollus illustration
Above, suka kollus being reconstructed. Photos: UNAR
The camellones produce their own fertilser giving abundant crops.

sukakollus oblique view suka kollus oblique view
Above, suka kollus oblique views

suka kollus Peru
Abandoned suka kollus in the region of Acora, Peru near lake Titicaca
from a video by Huerfano Pajarillo .

suka kollus Peru
Abandoned suka kollus in the region of Acora, Peru near lake Titicaca
from a video by Huerfano Pajarillo .

suka kollus Peru
Abandoned suka kollus in the region of Acora, Peru near lake Titicaca
from a video by Huerfano Pajarillo .

suka kollus peru
Above, suka kollus in Peru

suka kollus peru
Above, suka kollus in Peru

suka kollus peru
Above, suka kollus in Peru different imagery date

suka kollus peru
Above, suka kollus in Peru

suka kollus peru
Above, suka kollus in Peru

circular suka kollus peru
Above, circular suka kollus in Peru

circular suka kollus peru
Above, closer view, different date.

circular suka kollus peru
Above, circular suka kollus in Peru, the Atlantis circular pattern is obvious

Atlantis peru
Above, circular suka kollus in Peru, reminiscent of the Atlantis circles

Atlantis peru
Above, circular suka kollus in Peru, reminiscent of the Atlantis circles

suka kollus Atlantis Peru
Above, circular suka kollus in Peru, reminiscent of the Atlantis circles

circular suka kollus Atlantis peru
Above, circular suka kollus in Peru, reminiscent of the Atlantis circles

circular suka kollus peru
Above, circular suka kollus in Peru

concentric suka kollus Peru
Abandoned suka kollus with concentric rings of land separated by water channels in the region of Acora, Peru near lake Titicaca
from a video by Huerfano Pajarillo .
Note, there are no land bridges between the channels, therefore they must have used boats and just like Plato said of Atlantis,
"Cutting a channel leading from circle to circle, large enough for the boats to pass through."

concentric suka kollus Peru
Abandoned suka kollus with concentric rings of land separated by water channels in the region of Acora, Peru near lake Titicaca
from a video by Alexander Almonte.
Note, at this site, there do appear to be bridges over the water circles, just like Plato said of Atlantis,
"They bridged over the water circles and also cut channels leading from circle to circle."

Comment by Alexander Almonte:
"A los camellones se les denomina 'suka collos' en el idioma aymara (surcos elevados) y, desde 1986, se les conoce como 'waru waru', topónimo quechua del distrito de Huata (Erickson -1985). Existen en Puno, alrededor de 102.440 hectáreas con vestigios de camellones (Díaz y Velásquez, 1991). Respecto a sus orígenes, se conoce por estudios arqueológicos que la construcción de los camellones en Puno se inició en el año 1.000 a.C."

"The camellones are called 'suka collos' in Aymara language (elevated furrows) and, from 1986 are known as "waru waru", a Quechua name from the district of Huata (Erickson -1985). There exists in Puno about 102,440 hectares with remains of camellones (Díaz y Velásquez, 1991). With respect as to their origins, it is known from archaeological studies that the construction of camellones in Peru began in 1,000 BC.

concentric sukakollus
Abandoned suka kollus with concentric plots of land separated by dried up water channels in Peru near lake Titicaca
from a video by Jois Mantilla.

atlantis city design illustration
Above, since all of the Altiplano constitutes the site of the original Atlantis,
should it be surprising to find suka kollus in concentric rings reminiscent of the ancient culture?

concentric sukakollus
Abandoned suka kollus with concentric rings of land separated by water channels near Acora in Peru close to lake Titicaca
from a video by Rafa Mercado.

concentric sukakollus Peru
Abandoned suka kollus with concentric rings of land separated by water channels in Peru near lake Titicaca
from a video by Rafa Mercado.

concentric sukakollus Acora Puno
Abandoned suka kollus with concentric rings of land separated by water channels at Acota in Peru near lake Titicaca
from a video by Rafa Mercado.

concentric sukakollus Acora Puno
Abandoned suka kollus with concentric rings of land separated by water channels at Acota in Peru near lake Titicaca
from a video by Rafa Mercado.

concentric Atlantis circles Acora Puno
Abandoned suka kollus - Vestiges of Atlantis in Peru?
from a video by Rafa Mercado.

concentric suka kollus Peru
Abandoned suka kollus with concentric rings of land separated by water channels in the region of Acora, Peru near lake Titicaca
from a video by Huerfano Pajarillo .

   See also additional studies,

Atlantis of the andes
The expedition of Josh Gates, "Adventures Unknown" and which has been named "Atlantis of the Andes"
found and filmed stuctures under Lake Wiñaymarca, stones and walls which they declared to be "multiple buildings down here."
Thus confirming the Legend of the Desaguadero, a Bolivian legend which tells of a city punished by the gods and sunk beneath the sea (lake) - surely the origins of Plato's Atlantis.

camellones     artificial ponds Beni
Camellones and artificial ponds in Beni region of Bolivia


   geoforms - geoglyphs and other agricultural landforms
   agricultural variations on the Altiplano    ringed hilltops   earthquakes
   contour forms/irrigation Peru   contourforms/irigation Bolivia    Bombo earthquake route    Bombo route oblique views

   atlantis canals on the Altiplano    canals gallery   Chipaya canals gallery   canals in Peru   Caral, Peru containment canal
   Paria, Oruro containment canals   canal to sea (lago UruUru)    Tabasco, Mexico canals gallery   Pantanal
   rio Paraguay levees canals    rio Parana canals, ponds and islands    rio Parana delta canals   Corrientes
   rio Amazon to Manaus   rio Amazon west from Manaus   rio Orinocco to Amazon canal
   flooding dates on the Altiplano   Atlantis stones gallery

   Atlantis stade - Egyptian and Sumerian cubits   Tiwanaku cubits    Peru cubits and calendar    cubits between altiplano canals
   Teotihuacan measuring unit    Teotihuacan citadel measuring units
   Chichen Itza and El Castillo measuring units    Monte Alban, measuring units
   the Tiwanaku soli-lunar calendar    the Muisca calendar     Decoding the quipu mathematics

   J.M.Allen 2017 and 2019
   webatlantis@hotmail.com

sailing to the lost city of atlantis
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