High resolution satellite images of canals and ponds along the Parana River

This page follows on from examples of canals and ponds in the Paraguay river before it joins with the river Parana which also included an explanation about levees.

This page looks at similar channels and artificial ponds along the banks of the rio Parana from its junction with the rio Paraguay, south to 32 39' just north of Rosario. From 32 40' to its delta near Buenos Aires is shown on canalsparanadelta.htm Images show canals, ponds and islands which appear to be man-made or enhanced by man to utilise the natural environment as a habitat.

rio parana
the rio Parana from its junction with the rio Paraguay south to Buenos Aires

junction of rio paraguay and rio parana
Junction of the rio Paraguay and the rio Parana. A channel from the rio Paraguay at the top of the photo enters the land formations built up by accumulated river deposits seen on left hand side, winds around the site and eventually discharges into another channel from the rio Parana at the southern end. Note the large, circular lagoon.

canal and pond formations rio parana
A former canal crosses diagonally the circular lagoon.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Immediately west of the circular lagoon is a complex of linked ponds whilst a feeder canal transverses the lagoon to the right.

canal and pond formations rio parana
This section of canal crossing the circular lagoon measures about 165ft which is 100 sumerian cubits.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Sunlight refecting from the water shows how cuts have been made from one pond to another.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Sunlight refecting from the water shows many ponds are interlinked often with cut passages.

canal and pond formations rio parana
This artificial pond has a length of 400 Sumerian double yards.

canal and pond formations rio parana
one channel joins another.

canal and pond formations rio parana
a ground view of one of the channels.

canal and pond formations rio parana
a channel (top centre) is cut into by the curved feeder channel.

canal and pond formations rio parana
ponds have entry/exit channels from the feeder canals.



canal and pond formations rio parana
Another area of artificial ponds, islands and channels...

canal and pond formations rio parana
In this example, the cut shown measures about 110ft which is 100 Sumerian feet wide.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Example of ponds complex showing how ancient curved levee deposits have been adapted into artificial lagoons.



canal and pond formations rio parana
ponds and modified river channels.

canal and pond formations rio parana
This tributary running down into the rio Parana has been heavily modified with canals, islands and ponds.

canal and pond formations rio parana
The large pond on the right is about 500 metres (1000 Sumerian cubits) wide, and 1000 metres (2000 Sumerian cubits) long.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Another artificial pond.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Complex with ponds, islands and canals.

canal and pond formations rio parana
This island is 660 English feet or 600 Sumerian feet, or 400 Sumerian cubits or 1 furlong wide.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Complex of ponds, islands and canals.

canal and pond formations rio parana
The oval pond is about 225 metres or about 450 Sumerian cubits long.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Pond with artificial canals.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Another example of an oval pond.



canal and pond formations rio parana
Note the interlinking canal (curved at top) joining two longitudinal canals.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Closer view of interlinking canal (curved at top) joining two longitudinal canals. Note also the ponds (dark shades).

canal and pond formations rio parana
Another zone where a canal loops back forming an island with a tee-off from the lower loop.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Tear shaped pond and section of dried-up, straight canals.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Tear shaped island.

artificial headland rio parana
This artificially contrived island has a channel of 100 Sumerian cubits and a width of 400 sumerian cubits, i.e. one furlong.

artificial headland formations rio parana
Another example of an artificial headland 1 furlong or 400 sumerian cubits by 600 Sumerian cubits long.
Note the entry and exit channels to the pond on the left.

artificial channels feeding ponds rio parana
It is part of a complex fed by artificial channels.

artificial channels feeding ponds rio parana
The artificial canals are easier to see when in straight lines like this one.

artificial channels feeding ponds rio parana
The entrance channel to the pond is about 33ft wide which is 30 Sumerian feet or 20 Sumerian cubits.

artificial channels feeding ponds rio parana
An example of a lateral canal connecting ponds and feeder canals.

artificial channels feeding ponds rio parana
Pond supplied from feeder canal taking water from river.

artificial channels feeding ponds rio parana
Feeder canals linked by cut.



canal and pond formations rio parana
The naturally formed curved ponds have been opened up to the river by man-made access channels.

canal and pond formations rio parana
The naturally formed curved ponds have been opened up to the river by man-made access channels.



canal and pond formations santa fe rio parana
This typical complex near Santa Fe has been developed by cutting feeder canals and opening up ponds.

canal and pond formations santa fe rio parana
The feeder canals and access channels have been highlighted light blue in this overview.

canal and pond formations santa fe rio parana
This enlargement shows how all the ponds have been linked to the feeder canal system.

canal and pond formations santa fe rio parana
A close-up study shows that what were at one time natural bends in the river have been adapted and extended by cutting feeder canals which convey water to ponds throughout the site.

pond formations santa fe rio parana
This typical pond complex within the Santa Fe site has been developed by cutting feeder canals
with smaller access channels drawing water from the feeder canals.

pond formation santa fe rio parana
Enlargement of one of the ponds from previous photo.

pond formation santa fe rio parana
This nearby pond measures 600 metres or about 1200 Sumerian cubits, note the access channel from the feeder canal.

canal and pond formations rio parana
This curved feeder canal links one part of the complex to another.

canal and pond formations rio parana
It measures about 165ft or 100 Sumerian cubits.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Access channels have been cut through the natural ridges of land.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Close-up showing cuts giving water access through the natural island ridges.



canal formations rio parana
Another zone of ponds and channels. The headland is about 660ft, 600 Sumerian feet, 400 Sumerian cubits or 1 furlong.

canal and pond formations rio parana
This entry canal is about 120 Sumerian feet wide.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Complex of ponds, islands and channels with cuts.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Complex of ponds and channels. The transverse feeder canal is 66ft or 60 Sumerian feet wide.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Pond 100 Sumerian yards of 33" (50 shusi) wide.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Complex of ponds and channels.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Complex of ponds and channels.

canal and pond formations rio parana
This pond is about 500 Sumerian feet or 100 Sumerian double yards wide.



canal and pond formations rio parana
Note the straight diagonal canal.

canal and pond formations rio parana
The straight diagonal canal and the artificial ponds beneath.

canal and pond formations rio parana
The canal measures about 110 English feet or 100 Sumerian feet wide.

canal and pond formations rio parana
The canal continues on the other side of the river rising up into a curve.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Another complex of artificial ponds.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Another complex of artificial ponds.



canal and pond formations rio parana
canals with right-angled corners.

canal and pond formations rio parana
more canals with right-angled corners.

canal formations rio parana
This channel with squared corners is 1200 Sumerian feet, 800 Sumerian cubits or 2 furlongs deep.

canal and pond formations rio parana
this squared off headland measures about 2 furlongs or 800 Sumerian cubits.

canal and pond formations rio parana
A natural or contrived zigzag?.

canal and pond formations rio parana
Ponds within the zig, or is it the zag....

canal and pond formations rio parana
More re-routed canals, note the right-angled bends....

canal ground view rio parana
ground view of one of the channels....

canal rio parana east side
section of canal 300 to 330ft wide.

A remarkable book Letter to a King [14] a petition by one of the few remaining Inca noblemen Huaman Poma (1567-1615) to the King of Spain records the details of the ancient pre-Hispanic and pre-Inca Andes...
"In every village in this country there are watercourses, constructed in ancient times, into which the water is diverted from rivers, lakes or ponds. So much labour was involved that the cost . . . These works date back to the time before the Incas, when there was a large population under a single king. Not only watercourses were constructed but also terraces for the planting of crops on the hillsides. These were built up laboriously by hand, without tools, by Indians who each placed a single stone at a time to make long heaps. The number of workers was so vast that these projects were rapidly completed. Thus the terrain was made to bear cereals to feed the people, even in the sandy coastal plains and the rugged scenery of the Andes. Bridges and aqueducts were built and the marshes drained by order of these early kings. Then came the Incas, who ordained that existing custom and law should be preserved. There was to be no interference with the irrigation of the orchards and pastures which reached as far as the mountain peaks and gorges. They knew that these works, constructed by so great a labour force, could never in all probability be repeated."

"The Indians multiplied like ants or like the sands of the sea until they could no longer find room to live. Then they populated the lower levels of the land, where the climate was temperate and warm. The population was so numerous that it was able to survive a plague which once raged for six months throughout the kingdom. During this period the condors gorged themselves on the human corpses scattered about the fields and villages."

canal and pond formations rio parana
Continue to delta area for more canals and formations....



   Selection of related studies,
   Pantanal canals, ponds and islands    rio Paraguay levees canals    rio Parana canals, ponds and islands    rio Parana delta canals
   rio Amazon to Manaus   rio Amazon west from Manaus   rio Orinocco to Amazon canal   Corrientes
   flooding dates on the Altiplano    atlantis canals on the Altiplano    canals gallery   Chipaya canals gallery
   canals in Peru   Caral, Peru containment canal   Tabasco, Mexico canals gallery   canals Louisiana
   Paria, Oruro containment canals   canal to sea (lago UruUru)    Beni, Moxos gallery

   geoforms - Bolivian altiplano    agricultural variations on the Altiplano    ringed hilltops   earthquakes
   contour forms/irrigation Peru   contourforms/irigation Bolivia    Bombo earthquake route    Bombo route oblique views

   Atlantis stade - Egyptian and Sumerian cubits   Tiwanaku cubits    Peru cubits and calendar    cubits between altiplano canals
   Teotihuacan measuring unit    Teotihuacan citadel measuring units
   Chichen Itza and El Castillo measuring units    Monte Alban, measuring units    Atlantis stones gallery
   the Tiwanaku soli-lunar calendar    the Muisca calendar     Lost Calendar of the Andes     Decoding the quipu mathematics


J.M. Allen, January 2011
webatlantis@hotmail.com


atlantisbolivia.org