Geoglyph fossilised agriculture on the Bolivian Altiplano

Satellite imagery of areas of the Bolivian Altiplano north east and south east of Tiwanaku shows an extensive system of long narrow embankments accompanied by small circular mounds which have been baptised as "geoglyphs" but which appear to be in fact remains of an ancient agricultural system which was brought to an end by extensive earthquakes. These "geoglyph" formations are also often accompanied by hilltops surrounded by concentric ringed irrigation channels or walls, again destroyed by earthquakes thus suggesting that an ancient and unknown civilisation was destroyed in some great cataclysm. (see earthquakes page) Many of these sites appear disused today although in some places later peoples have built walls for the enclosure of animals ("corrales") over the ancient sites.

geoglyphs zone map near Tiwanaku
Map showing zones of "geoglyph" fossilised agricultural systems.

Some views from Google Earth

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, zone138, geoglyphs north of Tiwanaku first brought to the public attention by David Flynn. Although David called them "geoglyphs", a geoglyph usually refers to a giant sized earthwork where parts of the surface have been removed to make an artistic pattern. They may have that initial appearance today due to erosion over long periods of time, but these patterns appear to be more probably the result of agricultural fieldworks. In many cases, the fields which previously existed between the artificial parallel embanksments have now disappeared, leaving only the substantial embankments themselves, which give the appearance of "geoglyphs". These remains of a little known ancient system of agriculture cover extensive areas north, east and south-east of Tiwanaku.
see David Flynn report and see David Flynn report 2

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, oblique view shows the geoglyphs to be artificial land formations used for agricultural purposes.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, close-up oblique view showing the "geoglyph" agricultural system with small mounds and parallel embankments.

geoglyphs near Batallas, Bolivia
Above, ground view of previous zone of "geoglyph" agriculture.

geoglyphs stone columns near Batallas, Bolivia
Above, Porfirio Limachi besides one of the columns of stones.

geoglyphs stone mounds near Batallas, Bolivia
Above, Porfirio Limachi besides one of the mounds of stones.

geoglyphs agriculture near Batallas, Bolivia
Above, the space between the stone columns was used for agriculture as in this restored example.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, 132 example of geoglyph agriculture brought to an end by earthquake. The fissures can be clearly seen amongst the embankments and mounds.

geoglyph stone columns near Tiwanaku    geoglyph stone mounds near Tiwanaku
Above, 132 example of stones arranged in columns with accompanying mounds seen on preceeding photo.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, 132 example of restored agriculture between the stone columns. The columns help provide shelter from the winds and accumulate heat from the sun in daytime.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, 101dn close-up of north side of hill showing remains of embankments and mounds in parallel rows.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, 101dn close-up of north side of hill showing remains of embankments in parallel rows.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, 101dn another close -up view of north side of hill showing remains of parallel embankments. The fissures opened up by earthquakes can be clearly seen

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, 101dn close-up of north side of hill, embankments are about 100 to 110ft apart.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, 101dn this typical embankment is about 25ft wide.

geoglyph agriculture south of Tiwanaku
Above, zone 101d, geoglyph type of agriculture and hill with concentric rings surrounding 101d and parallel embankments at 101dn

geoglyph agriculture south of Tiwanaku
Above, zone 101d, hill with concentric rings.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, 101d this oblique view suggests this mountain top originally had concentric irrigation channels feeding the agricultural system but they may possibly have been concentric terraces, walls or even footpaths.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, 101d oblique view.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, the hill at 101d had vertical terracing (columns of stones) on the lower levels and horizontal terracing on the upper levels.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku geoglyphs near Tiwanaku  
Above, columns and mounds of stones at above site

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku geoglyphs near Tiwanaku  
Above, the site had many constructed terraces as well as a type of road (left) and channel (right) both at oblique angles.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, 132b the satellite imagery detects remains of former embankments and mounds.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, 132bz others are in better condition.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, 138b high resolution close-up oblique view of another zone with this "fossilised" system of agriculture and hilltop struck by earthquakes.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, close-up oblique view.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, close-up oblique view shows how the geoglyph field system was supplied with water from horizontal channels fed by natural streams.

close-up geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, close-up oblique view shows stream feeding irrigation channels.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, 101a remains of a circular walled terrace/pathway amongst eroded "geoglyph" agricultural system.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, 101a - example of the vertical columns of stones accompanied by circular heaps of stones.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, 101a - the circular feature turned out to be a walled terrace.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, 101c another example of remains of concentric walled terraces/pathways amongst eroded "geoglyph" agricultural system.

geoglyphs near Viacha
Above, 101c eastern end example of remains of concentric ringed walled terraces amongst eroded "geoglyph" agricultural system.

geoglyphs near Viacha   geoglyphs near Viacha
Above, 101c - ground views of above site with vertical columns of stones cleared from ground (left) and remains of walled horizontal terraces running round the site (right).

stone columns near Viacha   geoglyphs near Viacha
Above, 101c - the concentric bands are remains of walled terraces which ran like pathways around the site.

stone columns near Viacha   geoglyphs near Viacha
Above, 101c - the terraces have reinforcing walls on the outside, forming a sort of pathway or channel on the inside.

geoglyphs near Viacha
101c - ground view.

stone columns near Viacha   geoglyphs near Viacha
Above, 101c - columns of stones cleared from the land forming "vertical terraces" the top soil has now disappeared leaving mostly stony ground..

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, 105a another example of remains of concentric walled terraces or irrigation channels amongst eroded "geoglyph" agricultural system.

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, 101b these are concenric irrigation channels accompanied by terraces and walls.....

geoglyphs near Tiwanaku
Above, later peoples have reoccupied this site and built enclosure walls over the original fossilised agriculture system and what look like ringed irrigation channels or terraces

   See also additional studies,
   ringed hilltops   earthquakes    agricultural variations on the Altiplano    geoforms
   contour forms/irrigation Peru   contourforms/irigation Bolivia    Bombo earthquake route    Bombo route oblique views

   atlantis canals on the Altiplano    canals gallery   Chipaya canals gallery   canals in Peru   Caral, Peru containment canal
   Paria, Oruro containment canals   canal to sea (lago UruUru)   Pantanal
   Beni, Moxos gallery    rio Paraguay levees canals    rio Parana canals, ponds and islands    rio Parana delta canals   Corrientes
   rio Amazon to Manaus   rio Amazon west from Manaus   rio Orinocco to Amazon canal
   canals on the Louisiana seaboard   Tabasco, Mexico canals gallery   flooding dates on the Altiplano   Atlantis stones gallery

   Atlantis stade - Egyptian and Sumerian cubits   Tiwanaku cubits    Peru cubits and calendar    cubits between altiplano canals
   Teotihuacan measuring unit    Teotihuacan citadel measuring units
   Chichen Itza and El Castillo measuring units    Monte Alban, measuring units
   the Tiwanaku soli-lunar calendar    the Muisca calendar     Lost Calendar of the Andes     Decoding the quipu mathematics

   J.M. Allen 30th Aug 2011, updated 30th Oct 2011.
   webatlantis@hotmail.com

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