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Atlantis Bolivia - page 3, Bolivian legend of Atlantis and the discovery of "America"

The Atlantic Island, also called "Atlantis", remained lost from knowledge until 1492 when rediscovered by Christoper Columbus sailing west in an attempt to reach the Indies.
Columbus had with him a map and believed he had reached what he called the "Indias" but Americo Vespucci was first to identify the newly discovered lands as a "new" continent, or "New World"

the New World
The continent opposite the Pillars of Hercules which Columbus found
was considered a "New World" by Amerigo Vespucci.

Atlantis opposite Pillars of Hercules
Above, satellite imagery shows the island "as large as Libya and Asia combined and opposite the Pillars of Hercules"
called "Atlantis" by Plato and a "New World" by Amerigo Vespucci.

In 1507 the German cartographer Waldseemuller produced a world map on twelve panels which included the newly found continent. He decided to name the continent "America" in honour of the navigator Amerigo Vespucci who was first to recognise that the continent was a continent in it's own right, instead of being part of Asia as Columbus had thought.

america waldseemuller map
Panel 1 has an inscription....

beyond the stars Virgil

america as an island    america named by waldseemuller
detail from the 1507 Waldseemuller map showing South America conceived of as an island and with the name "America".

america named by waldseemuller

Amerigo Vespucci Waldseemuller map
America named by Waldseemuller after Amerigo Vespucci.

world globe 1510
This copper globe (the Hunt-Lenox globe) about 5 inches in diameter is tentatively dated to 1510 and shows South America as an island.

Hunt Lennox globe 1510
The Hunt-Lenox globe (1510) shows South America as an island.
(The New York Public Library, Rare Book Division, from the Lenox Library.)

Schoner globe 1520
The Schoner globe of 1520 continued to show South America as an island.

Schoner  America island 1533
By 1533 Schoner considered North and South America to be an eastern extension of Asia
but commented that both Columbus and Vespuuci had thought of South America as an island.

So the newly discovered continent came to be called America, but at the same time many people thought that what Christopher Columbus had in fact discovered was Atlantis, also known as "the Atlantic Island". The first book to mention this was "The History of the Indies" [27]by Franciso Lopez de Gomara. Published in 1552, the book was banned the following year and not reprinted until 1727. pdf version available from Ayacucho

Gomara statement Atlantis
Gomara's statement clearly identifies the Americas, called then "las Indias" as the Atlantis of Plato.
"Plato tells, in the dialogues Timaeus and Critias, that there was in ancient times in the Atlantic Sea and Ocean great lands and an island called Atlantis, larger than Africa and Asia, affirming those lands to be truly terra firma and extensive, and that the kings of that island ruled over a great part of Africa and Europe. Then with a great earthquake and rain the island sank, drowning the people, and there remained so much mud that the Atlantic sea was no longer navigable. Some people take this for a fable, and many others for a true history; and Proculus, as Marsilius tells us, alleges certain histories of Ethiopia which were made by one Marcellus, which are confirmed to be true. But there is no need to dispute or doubt of the island of Atlantis, thus the discovery and conquest of the Indies clarify clearly that which Plato wrote of those lands, and in Mexico water is called atl, a word which appears, although it may no longer exist, to be from the island. Thus we can say that the Indies are the islands and terra firma of Plato ....."

Gomara ancient writers
He also tells us the New World was described by several ancient writers.
"We have indicated in another place that which Democrito, Herodotus, Plato, Seneca and many others thought and wrote about the New World."

The next book to definitivly state that South America was Atlantis was "The Discovery and History of Peru" by Agustín Zarate, (1556) who also stated that Plato's "years" were not "years" but "months". "So far Plato, although he says a little later that nine thousand years before he wrote the power of the waters so increased in those seas that in a day and a night the island was submerged, drowning the lands and population, and leaving the sea so full of mud-banks and shallows, that it was never navigable again. No one could then travel to the other islands or to the mainland. All commentators on Plato accept this history as true. The majority, Marsiglio Ficino and Plantin in particular, deny that it is an allegory, though some give it an allegorical sense, as Marsiglio himself mentions in his Notes on the Timaeus. Plato's computation of nine thousand years is no argument that it is a fable; for according to Eudoxus these were not solar but lunar years, reckoned by the Egyptian calendar. The time was therefore nine thousand months or seven hundred and fifty years"

"The islands mentioned by Plato as visited by traders are surely Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Jamaica and others in that region; and the mainland facing them is what we know today as the Tierra Firme and all its provinces, starting from the Magellan straits and running north to the land of Peru, the province of Popayan, Castilla de Oro, Veragua, Nicaragua, Guatemala, New Spain, the Seven Cities, Florida and the Cod islands, and running up from there to join Norway. Beyond all doubt, there is more land here than in all the populated earth known to us before its discovery. And it is not difficult to understand why it was not discovered before now by the Romans or other nations which at various times occupied Spain. For we must suppose that the seas remained so rough as to prevent navigation."

"I believe it was Plato's authority that led to the discovery of these lands, and that they can certainly be identified with the mainland of which he speaks. For they show all the signs that he attributes to his continent, particularly that of being close to the true sea, which is what we now properly call the Southern Sea. For so far as we have sailed it at present, the whole Mediterranean and so much as we know of the ocean vulgarly called the Northern Sea are by comparison rivers." [30]

This was also repeated in "The History of the Incas" [29] written by the great historian and classical scholar Sarmiento de Gamboa following an official inquest into the true history of the Incas with the backing of the Viceroy of Peru. Sarmiento de Gamboa's book clearly states that South America was Atlantis and at the time he was writing was known by the names of "the western Indies of Castile or America also called Atlanticus or the Atlantic Island". So the continent was also known sometimes as "New Castile", "New Spain" or "Atlanticus", or "the Atlantic island", then latterly, "America". Sarmiento de Gamboa's book was sent to Philip II, king of Spain in 1572 and never heard of again being LOST for 300 years until it was discovered in a library in Germany in 1893 and republished in 1906.

Atlantis: the Atlantic Island

Atlanticus Zarate
the Spanish historian Zarate (1556) prefered the latinised form of Atlantis, Atlanticus.

We are all familiar with Atlantis being called "Atlantis", which allows its modern displacement to such places as Thera which is totally unconnected with the original description. But going back for example to an early translation by Henry Davis (1854), the island is merely called "the Atlantic island."

the Atlantic island Henry Davis 1854

Atlantis Atlantic island Davis 1854
above, Atlantis was "the Atlantic Island", in other words, if we are talking about the "Atlantic Island" instead of "Atlantis", it would be pretty stupid to try calling Thera "the Atlantic Island", but using only the form, "Atlantis" they can get away with it.

Atlantis Atlantic island Sarmiento de Gamboa
Sarmiento de Gamboa writing in "The History of the Incas refers to Atlantis as "the Atlantic Island".

Atlantic island Sarmiento de Gamboa
Sarmiento de Gamboa identifies Atlantis or the Atlantic Island with Peru and America.

Atlantica Sarmiento de Gamboa
Sarmiento de Gamboa identifies Atlantis as Atlantica, i.e. the Atlantic Island. (in Spanish, isla Atlantica).

jose de acosta
Jose de Acosta in 1590 identifies Atlantis as America and the "True Sea" as the Southern Ocean i.e. the Pacific Ocean.

Atlantic island jowett
the Jowett translation tells us Atlantis was the Atlantic Island.

Atlantic island Lee
the more modern Desmond Lee translation tells the whole island took the name or designation Atlantic.

Atlantis the Atlantic Island Atlanticus
Above, the Atlantic Island, also known as Atlanticus or Atlantis,
after the rediscovery by Columbus known as "New Spain" or "New Castile" then "America"
and by various ancient sources as "The Garden of the Hesperides", "the island of Calypso", "the red island of Erytheia" etc

The first map to show South America as Atlantis appears to be that of Sebastian Münster as part of his Cosmografia.

sebastian munster map of atlantis insula 1540
above, Map of the New World by Sebastian Münster, 1540. Beneath the word "ORBIS", it says "Insula Atlantica" meaning "Atlantic Island"

sebastian munster map of atlantis insula 1561
above, later edition, Map of the New World by Sebastian Münster, 1561, showing the name "Insula Atlantica" - "Atlantic Island"

detail of sebastian munster map of atlantis insula
above, Detail of the Münster map showing the New World , it appears to say the "Atlantic Island, also known as Brasil or America".

guillermo sanson map of atlantis insula
The "Atlantis Insula" or map of "Atlantis Island" by French cartographer Guillermo Sanson, 1661.

The Atlantis Island remained a popular name and was shown as such on maps made by the French cartographer Nicolas Sanson and further embellished with the Atlantis legend by his son Guillermo Sanson in Paris in the years around 1661.

Ethiopia, Guinea, Guiana and Guyana

In "America versus Africa", the Duchess of Medina Sidonia points out that when historians thought sailors were voyaging to gold mines in Guinea (Africa), they were in fact voyaging to Guyana whose original name was "Guiana", she quotes Lopez de Gomarra as saying that "Los Malucos islas de la Especeria son ... antipodes de la Etiopia, que agora llaman Guinea". (The Moluccas islands of spices.. are antipodes of Ethiopia, which is today called Guinea). We can check this ourselves today on a map and indeed the antipodes of the Moluccas are not in the continent of Africa, but a line passing just east of the mouth of the Amazon in South America... virtually the same line that was used in the Treaty of Tordesillas when the world was divided into two parts belonging to Spain and Portugal,

duchess medina sidonia map
map by the Duchess of Medina Sidonia correctly showing the antipode line of Moluccas islands as near the Amazon. The island of the Hesprides is also correctly shown as South America.

treaty tordesillas 1494
the Treaty of Tordesillas 1494, only two years after the "discovery" of America,
awarded all the gold-rich lands of Peru to Spain... .

So following on from Columbus' "Discovery", Spain was able to claim most of the land of the Americas and go on to ship all the gold and silver of Peru back to Spain....... Wikipedia tells us that historically, the region known as "Guiana" or "Guyana" comprised the large shield landmass north of the Amazon River and east of the Orinoco River known as the "Land of many waters".

guiana, guinea map
Antique map showing the location of Guiana in South America, and Guinea in Africa. Note on this map, Ethiopia extended right across Africa.

Ethiopian Ocean map
Antique map showing the location of the Ethiopian Ocean and Ethiopia extending across western Africa.
Since the two Ethiopias were separated by the Ocean, the other Ethiopia must have been what today we call "Brasil".

ethiopia quote both sides of Atlantic
Ancient Greek writers said that Ethiopia was divided into two parts, one each side of the Atlantic Ocean, ("they are two groups, and are divided in two by the ocean") so the other part of Ethiopia would have been what we call today Brasil.

gomarra quote antipodes
Detail of statement by Gomarra that Ethiopia which is today called Guinea was the antipode of Maluccas,
(The Moluccas, the Spice Islands, are also antipodes of Ethiopia, which today is called Guinea)
This is correct for Guinea meaning Guyana near the mouth of the Amazon

Gomarra goes on to say that Taprobana also was the Antipodes of Ethiopia on the Nile between its birth and Meroe, this latter part of his statement is clearly wrong as the antipodes of Ethiopia on the Nile is more like French Polynesia so he must have based his antipodes statement on received information without understanding that the Guinea referred to was not the one in Africa, but the one in South America.

Taprobana     Borneo
Above left, Taprobana according to Ptolemy. Above right, Taprobana can more likely be identified with Borneo in Indonesia and the Spice Islands or Moluccas are the group of islands just east of Borneo.

Taprobana according to Wiki is an unknown island possibly either Sri Lanka or Sumatra and thought by Claudius Ptolemy to be a large island south of Asia and near India, curiously, the above map by Ptolemy not only shows more or less the correct outline of Borneo as Taprobana, but also correctly places it on the equator and also gives the correct longitude for the Moluccas based not on Alexandria, nor is the longitude based upon the "Fortunate Islands" (either the Canaries or the Cape Verde Islands) which he used for his world map, but it seems to be based on Lisbon. The maps of Ptolemy were redrawn for printing in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and data may have been altered over the centuries. It also shows Borneo correctly surrounded by small islands whereas Sri Lanka is not surrounded by small islands. Another case of mistaken identity proposing Sri Lanka as Taprobana in modern interpretations.

According to Jose de Acosta writing in "Historia Natural y Moral de los Indies" Taprobana was Sumatra, the island just west of Borneo.

south east Asia
The Moluccas or Spice Islands east of Borneo. The Portuguese explorers sought to find a route sailing beneath the Cape of Good hope and via India to the east, while the Spanish sought to find a route by sailing west, hence the Phillipines named after the King of Spain.

Spanish empire     Portuguese empire
two modern interpretations of the demarcation lines of the Treaty of Tordesillas and spheres of influence of Spanish and Portuguese empires.

Although the treaty of Tordesillas divided the world into two spheres of influence belonging to Spain and Portugal respectively, it was important to know not only where the dividing line would fall in South America, but also on the opposite side of the world since if according to the Treaty the Spice Islands fell in Spanish territory, they were already de facto occupied by the Portuguese so the line in the east had to be redrawn. The whole object of Columbus' voyages had been theoretically, to find a route west, by sea, to the Spice Islands.

antipodes amazon maluccas
The Duchess of Medina Sidonia correctly shows the Antipodes of the Moluccas Islands as being near the Amazon River, almost identical to the line chosen in the original Treaty of Tordesillas, so all land west of this including Guyana or Guiana or "Guinea" would fall to Spain.

The Duquesa de Medina Sidonia descended from one of the ruling familes at the time of the Conquest and inherited a unique archive of documents of that period. "During her extensive research in the archives she discovered documents which convinced her that America might have been discovered a long time before Columbus by Arab-andalusian or Moroccan sailors trading with ports in Brazil, Guayana and Venezuela and she published her views in "No fuimos nosotros" (It wasn't us) and "África versus América." article in Wikipedia

The idea that Columbus discovered "America" was promoted by the Spanish crown in order to justify a conquest of territories already occupied by others, and both Charles V and Philip II burned all records of previous contact according to the duchessa. (This would also explain why the books of Francisco Lopez de Gomara and Sarmiento de Gamboa were banned)

Review of the duquesas' book, "Africa versus America"
download the book here(text only version missing the original maps and scanned documents)
article on the Duquesa de Medina Sidonia

South America is indeed a "land of many waters" and the way of life was a water-based culture

America is an island
Is America an island? The Duchess of Medina Sidonia tells us that when the Spanish first went there, … "The natives of the Islands of the Indies (name for South America in the sixteenth century) described their habitat as an island with an endless coast, which you could not circumnavigate in forty months"

America, Tahuantinsuyo,
the Four quarters of the World or of the Antis

Following the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776 the name "America" (initially applied only to South America) became universally adopted and the name of Atlantis forgotten until resurrected in modern times.

America independence delaration

No attention was given to the fact that the southern continent already had an indigenous name given by the Incas before the Conquest. Their name for the continent was "Tahuantinsuyo" meaning "land of the four quarters".

tahuantinsuyo map
Location of Atlantis and Antisuyo in the empire of Tahuantinsuyo

atl and antis antisuyo

Atl and Antis, a "waterworld" culture and copper

Atl is an Aztec word meaning "water" and the combination of "atl" and "antis" an excellent name for this continent since large parts of it are in fact under water in the wet season with severe flooding throughout Amazonia and Beni regions.

amazon basin flood regions
This satellite imaging photos shows how large parts of Amazonia are under water in the wet season.

South America flood regions
This image shows how large parts of south America are under water in the wet season, making it a "waterworld"

amazon apurimac flooded amazon flooded
South America is a continent full of rivers which are vital arteries for transportation and in the wet season vast tracts of land become submerged making it a truly a watery continent... The "atl" meaning "water" part of Atlantis is aptly named....

Antis is an Inca word meaning "copper" which could refer to the abundance of copper on the continent or the people themselves who are also copper coloured and a tribe of natives living to this day on the eastern slopes of Peru are known as the "Antis". The very name of the Andes themselves is also thought to be a corruption of the word "Antis" and one of the quarters of the Inca Empire was called "Antisuyo" meaning the kingdom of the Antis.

Explanation of the name "Atlantis" by Roman Morales Zenteno, a native of Orinoco, the village next to the Atlantis site at Pampa Aullagas.
Dear Jim, it's certain that you know that Orinoca are aimaras, I would like to comment to you that when I was a child, my mother showed me the mountains, letting me understand them as the ANTI, which in reality comes from ANTA which also signifies a GROUP, for example we ourselves in aimara say "mä suma anta" which is to say a good group or troupe; to understand in Spanish is a group of hills or mountains, in other words CORDILLERA (mountain range); and for the other part AT comes from ATI, which refers to the back of the neck, and could also be the back, or the sunset, then interpreting the word ATLANTI or AT ANTI, the mountain range of South America, is located in the side ATI (back or sunset) of the whole continent, allow me to affirm that that name comes from this; including the deduction that the first Incas were aimara speakers, almost puquinas (another local original language); but to understand the word Tawantinsuyo (name of the Inca empire), first TAWA is the number four in quechua, ANTI is mountain range and SUYO territory, signifying FOUR TERRITORIES OF THE MOUNTAIN REGION: COLLASUYU, CHINCHASUYU, ANTISUYU, CUNTISUYU. These last are in the aimara language. Thus, we deduce that ANTI, is ANDE or the ANDES in Spanish;
Roman Morales Zenteno

atlantis Aymara
Atlantis name explantion in Aymara, the native language of the Collasuyo and Altiplano.

Atlantis and the Kingdom of the Antis in Antisuyo at the time of the Inca empire.

antis map
Map showing the location of "Antis" in Peru.

antis location map
Map showing the location of "Antis" in Peru at the time of the Conquest.

antis indians antisuyo
Antis indians of 1869, Peru

antis indians first race
"Tiahuanacu" by Belissario Diaz Romero, Bolivia, 1906 tells us that the Antis were
the first inhabitants of the Titicaca region, and from them came the name
of the "Antis" mountain range, later corrupted to "Andes" by the Spanish conquerors.

antis suyo
Belissario Diaz Romero also tells us that the name "Tahuantinsuyo" of the Incas,
strictly speaking means "the region of the four Antis"

antis indians tiwanaku
Belissario Diaz Romero thought that the Antis indians were descended from Atlanteans and were the original founders
of Tiwanaku, but were later displaced by the incoming Aymara tribes. He also misplaced Atlantis as being
in the Atlantic Ocean without realising that the region itself formed part of the original Atlantis
and there is no need to look for a race incoming from elsewhere.

It is more probable that the Antis indians were displaced due to the earthquakes and floods which Plato mentioned so that as Sir Francis Bacon mentioned, they descended to lower territories. In "The New Atlantis" by Sir Francis Bacon, it is related how after the great flood which drowned Atlantis, the survivors threw off their heavy clothes and descended from their high plateau to live in lower territories... "the Great Atlantis was utterly lost and destroyed not by a great earthquakes as your man saith.... but by a particular Deluge or Inundation. But it is true, that the same inundation was not deep; not past forty feet in most places from the ground. So that although it destroyed man and beast generally, yet some few wild inhabitants of the wood escaped. and having in their mountain regions been used to clothe themselves with the skins of tigers, bears and great hairy goats, when after they came down into the valley, they found the intolerable heats which are there, and knowing no means of lighter apparel they were forced to begin the custom of going naked, which continueth to this day. Only they take great delight in the feathers of birds."

So according to Bacon, Atlantis did not sink into the sea in the sense of the land being destroyed by earthquakes and submerging, but was instead submerged by rising waters of an inundation or flood... If we go back to an earlier work by the Spanish historian Augustin de Zarate (The history of the Discovery and Conquest of Peru, 1555) he tells us "Plato wrote the power of the waters so increased in those seas that in a day and a night the island was submerged, drowning the lands and the population..."

Atlantis legend has origins in Bolivin legend

Now if we go to the "Atlantic Island", as described above, and we go to the region bordering on the Antis as described above, we find that most remarkable of all, a Bolivian legend called "The Legend of the Desaguadero" tells of a city on the edge of a lake, punished by the gods and submerged by the sea, in exactly the same manner as Plato's.

legend of the Desaguadero city by lake

In the Bolivian legend, Tunupa, the Aymara god also known in Quechua (language of the Incas) as Pachacamac or Viracocha was the Andean god of the waterways, lakes and rivers (i.e. the sea god) and a teacher of mankind - just as in Greek legend the equivalent god was Poseidon.

bolivian legend Desaguadero gods bolivian legend desaguadero earthquakes legend of the Desaguadero drowned city

Tunupa/Pachacamac tried to persuade the people from their degenerate ways but failed so the chief of the gods decided to punish the city and sent against it thunder, lightning and storms and it sank beneath the rising waters of the sea (lake).

Tunupa/Pachacamac was cast adrift in Lake Titicaca in a reed boat, but the boat travelled to the south bursting through the southern shore of lake Titicaca and opening up a waterway which became the River Desaguadero until Tunupa/Pachacamac arrived at Pampa Aullagas where he disappeared beneath the waters of the lake.

tunupa drowns in lago Poopo near Pampa Aullagas
Tunupa disappears beneath the waters of Lake Poopo near Pampa Aullagas

Message from Eduardo Montaña of AtlantisBolivia
"The 21st of June I was in a rowing boat on lake Wiñaymarca (the smaller part of the lake to the south of Lake Titicaca) celebrating the Andino New Year. In the early hours of the morning with the first rays of the sun and a full moon, we found ourselves in the interior of the small lake where we saw these (underwater) structures, which surely belong to the "eternal city" of Wiñaymarca, buried under Lake Titicaca. Then the Legend of the Desaguadero (of Thunupa) is true."

eternal city Wiñaymarca  eternal city Wiñaymarca
Stones beneath the waters of lake Wiñaymarca from the eternal city

There are local variations of the story and in the region of Pampa Aullagas it is said that Tunupa later re-appeared in female form and married a god who lived on a nearby hill, later creating the ringed formations at Pampa Aullagas (just as in Plato's story, Poseidon married a woman who lived on a hill and created the ringed defences of Atlantis). So here we have the origin of Plato's legend of Atlantis - an adaptation of a Bolivian Legend.

click for legends page

sinking of Altiplano Bolivia   flooding of Altiplano Bolivia
The flood waters from Lake Titicaca filled lake Wiñaymarca and rushed south, destroying everything in a giant tsunami...

rene rojas Legends of Bolivia
Above, the city is punished by the chief of the Gods,
Illustration from "Legends of Bolivia" by Rene Rojas

Atlantis submerged by the Sea

Over thousands of years, the Altiplano has periodically been submerged by a series of vast lakes, or inland seas,
the most recent being compatible with Plato's timescale.

Atlantis submerged by lake Tauca
The Altiplano disappears beneath the sea!
The Altiplano was submerged by the Lake Tauca cycle which lasted from 16,000 to 12,500 BC then by the Lake Coipasa cycle from 10,500 to 9,900 BC according to Blard 2012

lake tauca map
"There were earthquakes and floods of extraordinary violence, [25d] and in a single dreadful day and night the island of Atlantis was swallowed up by the sea and vanished;"

Above, the Altiplano was submerged by Lake Tauca around 14,000 - 8,000 BC (dates and phases vary according to different authors). The lower part of the Atlantis mountain and the land surrounding it would have "dissapeared beneath the sea" whilst the mountain was substantially demolished by earthquakes. It is now thought the flooding was due to increased rainfall. There may also have been a later flooding but of briefer duration and thus not recorded.
n.b. The Donnelly translation reads... "there occurred violent earthquakes and floods, and in a single day and night of rain .. the island of Atlantis ... disappeared, and was sunk beneath the sea."
The level Altiplano floods rapidly especially in the region of Lake Poopo due to an underground water table and a large number of sink holes and underground channels. Periodically the el niño phenomenon brings severe changes in weather patterns often accompanied by disastrous flooding.

Many native American cultures did not drain the land in order to plant crops, instead they preferred to flood the land and live in semi-aquatic environments. An example is the Chipaya who live in the centre of the rectangular Altiplano, previously living in small round huts which were only a few inches above the ground which being level, flooded easily.

Also in Plato's version, the wife of Poseidon had five pairs of twin sons and in Inca legend, after a great flood, Viracocha "adopted" five pairs of sons. Viracocha incidentally means "Spume of the Sea". Other legends say the first Incas were born as pairs of brothers/sisters.
So the first inhabitants of Atlantis were born in pairs and the Inca historian Guaman de Poma tells us the first inhabitants of the Andes were born in pairs.
Additionally, The Aymara kingdoms which existed on the Altiplano also existed in pairs, they were twin kingdoms.

orichalcum twins
orichalcum twins - twins are a common theme in the Andes

sailing to pampa aullagas
remains of Atlantis, at Pampa Aullagas, "the mountain that was low on all sides."

Atlantis on the Altiplano by Lee Smart
Artist's impression "Atlantis on the Altiplano" by Major Lee Smart

Atlantis at Pampa Aullagas, Artist's illustration from "Atlas of Atlantis".

In the region around lake Titicaca, legends talk of a city submerged beneath the waters of the lake. Previous diving attempts revealed nothing, but in the year 2,000 the Akakor expedition discovered ancient walls submerged under lake Titicaca.

Akakor expedition finds 660ft long temple under Lake Titicaca

Then in the year 2004 Akakor returned to Bolivia and found more walls beneath Lake Titicaca.

In 2009, a press release by the Akakor expeditions related discoveries under Lake Titicaca to Atlantis.
akakor expedition Akakor video footage    transcription of akakor video

Quote "At 120 meters depth we discovered roads and containing walls (probably used for agricultural purposes), all of which go back to 6,000 years ago....." Akakor Press release 2004...

If walls were found beneath Lake Titicaca which date back to 4,000BC then certainly there must have been people
in other parts of the Altiplano at the same time so currently accepted dating for the region must be wrong....

So now we have the possibility of a city sunken beneath lake Titicaca which would push civilisation in the Andes back several thousands of years, but there is also the recent discovery of pyramids at Caral in Peru which date to 2627BC, contemporary with the oldest pyramids in Egypt and older than Cheop's Great Pyramid in Egypt. Even more recently, remains of a 5,500 yrs old plaza were uncovered. In other words, at the same time as the ancient civilisation of Egypt, there was also an ancient civilisation in the Americas.

<caral plaza
click for Caral wikipedia article      click for Caral oldest city in New World article

Coming back to a region nearer to the Altiplano, mummies found near Arica in Chile are also older than the oldest mummies in Egypt. Similarities also exist in the type of boats made of reeds found in Bolivia, Egypt and Mesopotamia.

reed ship drawing Egypt    reed ship model Bolivia
Above (left) drawing of a reed ship from a cave in the Egyptian Eastern desert
Above (right) model of a traditional Bolivian reed ship from the museum in La Paz

Atlantis and pre-Columbian artefacts

A large stone bowl found on the shores of Lake Titicaca also suggests an ancient connection between the Andes and Mesopotamia since it is covered in proto-Sumerian writing.

fuente magna bowl    fuente magna proto sumerian writing
The discovery of the Fuente Magna, a large stone dish covered in proto-cuneiform writing from the shores of LAKE TITICACA offers two possibilities. One, that it was brought to the Andes by the proto-Sumerians, or two, that the Sumerians themselves originated here. Click for original report

fuente magna cuneiform writing
Fuente Magna NEW PHOTOS

There is a mindset that totally denies any possibility that any of the Ancients could have crossed the oceans and that there could have been some contact at any time between the ancient Americas and the "Old World". But the similarity of artefacts found in the ancient Americas and in the Old World suggests there was indeed at some times or at various times contact. Take for example the amphoras shown below. The amphora is a common Mediterranean object, yet the reader may be surprised to learn that of the examples below, the oldest comes from China. There again, if the reader had to guess which examples came from the Old World and which from the New World, it would be a difficult task due to their similarity.

ancient amphoras

Yet if we say that some examples are from China and some Roman or Greek, that is acceptable and logical because it is acceptable that an idea such as an amphora could spread from China to the Mediterranean or vice versa. But it seems not acceptable that an idea could spread from China to the ancient Americas, mainly because it is not written about in the history books.

stone axe Bolivia axe Cyprus1100BC
above left, stone age pre-Columbian axe, Bolivia, right, axe from Cyprus 1100BC.

pre-Columbian pottery pre-Columbian jug from Cyprus
above, left, typical Peruvian pottery, above right typical Andean pottery found in CYPRUS and believed to have been imported between 1650 and 1050BC.
Artefacts, click here to see more artefacts and where they were found...

round stone from Pumiri
above, Eduardo Montaño discovers three of these round stones at the ancient site of Pumiri (April 2014), to the west of Oruro on the Altiplano. The stones appear to be covered in fossilised lake deposits from the time the Altiplano was flooded and they also appear to have been shattered by earthquakes.

round stone from Tiwanaku round stone door from Derinkuyu, Turkey
above, stone wheel or circular door? left, from Tiwanaku, above right stone door in underground city at Derinkuyu, Turkey.
   click for underground city of Derinkuyu page

ancient Peruvian raft

When the conquistadors arrived off the coast of Peru, they found the native Americans using giant sea-going rafts which instead of using keels and rudders, controlled the direction of the vessel by means of retractable dagger boards (F and G above), a system unknown at the time in Europe.

prehistoric Peruvian sailng raft

At a time when Europeans were using inefficient square sails, native Americans used triangular sails which could sail better to windward and which later became the basis for the "Bermudan" sailing rig popular in today's sailing yachts...

Atlas holding the world
continue to page 4 for conclusion