Investigations and Histories.
Francisco de Xerex 1534
True relation of the conquest of Peru
Verdadera relacion de la conquista del Peru (pdf)
Xerez encontro cronista de la conquista, Gonzalo Fernando de Oviedo
Pedro Cieza de Leon 1549
Crónicas del Perú (the Chronicle of Peru, translated by Sir Clements Markham).
Agustin Zarate 1556 (wiki)
Historia Del Descubrimiento Y Conquista Del Perú Agustin Zarate 1555 (pdf)
available in English as "The Conquest of Peru", Penguin books
Relación do todo lo sucedido en la provincia del Pirú desde que Blasco
Nuñez Vela fué enviado por S.M. a ser visorey della, que se embarco a
primero de noviembre del año de M.D.X.L.III (pdf)
Jose de Acosta 1539 - 1600 (wiki)
"Historia natural y moral de las Indias"
Vol II, books 5, 6 and 7 in English
(The Natural and Moral History of the Indies) pdf
Acosta says that he measured one of the great stones at Tiahuanaco,
and found it to be 38 feet long, 18 broad, and 6 deep, Historia Natural
de las Indias, lib. vi, cap. 1-4, p. 419.
Garcilaso de la Vega (El Inca) 1539 - 1616 (wiki)
Historia general del Peru o Comentarios Reales de los Incas
vol I (pdf)
vol II (pdf)
Juan de Betzanos 1551
Suma y Narración de los Incas
origin of Con Tici Viracocha in Tiaguanaco Dios hacedor del mundo
modern copy in English
"Destrucción del Perú," crónica escrita por el año de 1553 por Cristóbal de Molina,
Historia de los Incas Exsul Immeritus 1574
Polo de Ondegardo said in his book Los errores y supersticiones de las Indios, 1559
(that is to say, a few years before Guaman Poma began to write his Crónica). In Ch. 7 he
says: "They divided the year into twelve months by the moons. Already, each moon or month
had its marker or pillar around Cuzco, where the sun arrived that month."
(quotation from Posnansky)
link to online spanish text
Fernández de Oviedo, Historia general y natural de las Indias 1557
available in English as
Fernández de Oviedo's Chronicle of America
Cobo, Bernabé 1653 (wiki)
History of the New World
Historia del Nuevo Mundo (pdf)
available in English as
History of the Inca Empire, Translated by Roland Hamilton. Austin: University of Texas Press 1979.
Fernando de MONTESINOS.
Las Memorias Antiguas historiales y políticas de Pirú (pdf) and Gobierno de los Ingas
reprint 1883 - (on the Incas of Peru at the command of Don Francisco de Toledo)
Also translated into English as
"The Quito manuscript:
an Inca history preserved by Fernando de Montesinos"
Yale Peabody museum also available in Google
Also look for "Anales o memorias nuevas del Peru"
Father Gregorio Garcia states in his work on the origin of the Indians (published in 1607)
Orígen de los indios
initiaba una reflexión científica sobre las
sociedades prehispánicas en su libro Vues des Cordillères... ,
vol 1 pdf
vol 2 pdf
Baltazar de Salas, Copacabana de los Incas, 1618, reprinted and edited 1910 by viscarra
Historia del celebre santuario de Nuestra Senora de Copacabana, 1621 pdf
copacabana en brasil, derived from bolivia
Alcide Charles Victor Marie Dessalines d'Orbigny
1826 to 1833 visited South America, and visited Tiwanaku in 1833.
Link wanted to ebook with section on Tiwanaku, nb, his drawings (before photography)
are not entirely accurate...
"La Relation du Voyage dans l'Amérique Méridionale pendant les annés 1826 à 1833" (Paris, 1824-47, in 90 fascicles.)
link to vols 5 to 9
vol 5 (reptiles) pdf
vol 6 part II (insects) pdf
vol 7 parts 1&2 (botany)
vol 7 part III (botany) pdf
(vol 9 zoological atlas pdf)
"d'Orbigny sobre Tiahuanaco en su famosa obra sobre el Hombre Americano. —publicada en 1839"
L' Homme Américaine (pdf) sous ses rapports physiologiques et moreaux, Paris 1839
also wrote Voyage dans L'Amerique meridionale - find copy
find also work on
Tiwanaku, December 26, 1848 by Léonce Angrand
Mariano Edward Rivera and Dr John James Von Tschudi
"Peruvian Antiquities" 1853 pdf
E. George Squier 1860
published New York, 1877
Peru: Incidents of Travel and Exploration in the Land of the Incas (pdf)
On the Aymara Indians of Bolivia and Peru, David Forbes 1870, pdf
The Temple of the Andes, R. Inwards, 1884, pdf
charles weiner 1875
Essai sur les institutions politiques, religieuses, économiques et
sociales de l’empire des Incas.
del año 1877, hizo también una corta exploración de las ruinas de Tiahuanaco
Y publicó un libro bajo el título de Pérou et Bolivie (1880).
Moritz Alphons Stübel
Die Ruinenstätte von Tiahuanaco im Hochlande des alten Perú
(The Ruins of Tiahuanaco in the Highlands of Ancient Peru)- with
Friedrich Max Uhle; Hiersemann, Leipzig 1892
German geologist Alphons Stübel spent nine days in Tiwanaku in
1876, creating a map of the site based on careful measurements.
He also made sketches and created paper impressions of carvings and other architectural features.
Link wanted to this book, please email webmaster if you have one
Max Uhle 1892
Die Ruinenstätte von Tiahuanaco im Hochlande des alten Perú
(The Ruins of Tiahuanaco in the Highlands of Ancient Peru)- with Moritz
Alphons Stübel; Hiersemann, Leipzig 1892
The above book containing major photographic documentation was
published in 1892 by Max Uhle and engineer B. von Grumbkow. With
commentary by archaeologist Max Uhle, this was the first in-depth
scientific account of the ruins.
Max Uhle visited Bolivia in 1894
Count G de Créqui-Montfort, Tiwanaku excavations 1903
one of only two copies of a book of photographs of the excavations is said to exist in the Brooklyn museum of Art
Link to Brooklyn Museum collection of high resolution Tiwanaku images from 1903 expedition
Rapport sur Une Mission Scientifique en Amerique du Sud M de Crequi Montfort et M Senechal de La Grange 1904
Les Lacs du Haute Plateau de l'Amerique du sud (pdf) Dr M Neveu-Lemaire 1906
Antiquites de la region andine de la republique Argentine y du desert du Atacama (pdf) Eric Boman vol II 1908
Le Dr Arthur Chervin 1908 (vol III on skulls)
Adolph Bandelier, 1910,
The islands of Titicaca and Koati pdf
In 1934 the Peruvianist
Wendell C. Bennett carried out several excavations at Tiwanaku,
excavating the monolith found within the sunken courtyard and now known as the "Bennett monolith",
7.30 metres long by 1.3 metres wide.
His findings were published in "Excavations at Tiahuanaco",
anthrologial papers of the American museum of Natural History 34(3): 359-341
link to Bennet's book Andean Archaeology
link to Bennet's book The North Highlands of Peru
link to Excavations at Tiahuanaco, Anthropological papers Vol 34 part III - Bennett, Wendell Clark 1934
link to Excavations at Tiahuanaco, Anthropological papers Vol 35 part IV - Bennett, Wendell Clark 1936
Das Sonnentor von Tihuanaku und Hörbigers Welteislehre: Edmun Kiss
Edmund Kiss 1937
Artur Posnansky 1945
Volume II, Chapter II
The Temple of the Sun,
from Tihuanacu, the Cradle of American Man (6)
La Paz, in 1912, published the book entitled "Guía General llustrada. Tihuanacu, Islas del Sol y de la Luna, etc.
There appeared in Germany and other countries in 1914, the first
volume of "Una Metrópoli Prehistórica en la América del Sur", which
contained the first studies connected with the building of Kalasasaya.
In the year 1918, we published a work connected with the
determination of the age of Tihuanacu, entitled "El Gran Templo del Sol
en los Andes. La Edad de Tihuanacu", which appeared in "Bulletin No. 45"
of the Geographic Society of La Paz.
a voluminous photographic album and book dealing with the ruins,
Don Manuel Vicente Ballivián and Posnansky.
Tihuanacu, the Cradle of American Man, Artur Posnansky 1945 Book I pdf English and Spanish
Tihuanacu, the Cradle of American Man, Artur Posnansky 1945 VI The ruins of the first period of Tihuanacu pdf
Tihuanacu, the Cradle of American Man, Artur Posnansky 1945 VIII The Sun Door in Kalasasaya pdf
El pasado Prehistórico del Gran Perú: tipos Aruwac y Kholla en la cerámica de Tihuanacu pdf
El signo escalonado en las ideografías americanas con especial referencia a Tihuanacu. pdf
Campaña del Acre, La Lancha Iris: Aventuras y peregrinaciones pdf
Boero Rojo, Hugo:
Escritor, novelista, periodista, arqueologo y cineasta.
"Descubriendo Tiwanaku" (1980), "Discovering Tiwanaku" (1980)
Ponce Sanginés, Carlos
1981 Tiwanaku: Espacio, Tiempo y Cultura: Ensayo de ´Síntesis Arqueológica. La Paz: Amigos del Libro.
The Tiwanaku: Portrait of an Andean Civilization. Cambridge, Blackwell (1)
worked with Alan Kolata on restoration of Suka Kollas
Javier Escalante former Department of Archaeology of Bolivia
1993 Arquitectura Prehispánica en los Andes Bolivianos. La Paz: CIMA.
1994 Guía Arqueológica de Bolivia. La Paz: CIMA.
1996 De la Caverna a La Metropoli, 5,000 Años de Arquitectura. La Paz: CIMA.
Tiwanaku señores del lago sagrado
Jose Berenguer Rodriguez, 2000
Who taught the Inca stonemasons their skills?
Protzen and Nair
On Reconstructing Tiwanaku Architecture
Dr. Alexei Vranich of the University of
Journal of Field Archaeology
Estudio de las percepciones y experiencias en el templete semisubterraneo de Tiwanaku
Luis Miguel Callisaya Medina, 2009
comments in spanish on Tiwanaku history
article on history of exploration in Bolivia and South America.
Tiwanaku, December 26, 1848 by Léonce Angrand
visit bookstore to download
Atlantis: the Andes Solution
The Atlantis Trail
Atlantis and the Persian Empire
Tiwanaku was abandoned by about 1000AD but around 1200AD
the beginnings of the Inca empire were founded at Cusco in Peru.
Legend says the first Incas came from the Island of the Sun in Lake Titicaca, other legends that
the first peoples of the Andes
were created by the god Viracocha from Tiwanaku.
The region around Tiwanaku was later incorporated into the Inca empire.
The history of the Inca Empire can be split into 3 periods: the Kingdom of Cuzco (1200 - 1438),
the Tahuantinsuyo/Greater Inca Empire (1438 - 1533),
the Vilcabamba Empire (1525 - 1533 and 1571 - 1572).
Interruptions exist and also, some historians give different time frames for the periods.
The Cuzco Kingdom was the core of what later become the Tahuantinsuyo - what we call "Inca Empire" today.
Though, Tahuantinsuyo means rather "Four Regions", not "Inca Empire". In fact, all 3 periods constituted
Inca Empires, only the strength and the territories variated.
1200s Manco Cápac I.
1230s Sinchi Roca
1260s Lloque Yunpanqui
1290s Mayta Cápac
1320s Cápac Yupanqui
1350s Inca Roca
1380s Yahuár Huacác
1410 - 1438 Viracocha
Son of Yahuar Huacác, father of Pachacuti. His original name was Hatun Tupaq (or Hatun Ripaq).
He was named
after the god Viracocha, with whom he mustn't be confused. Viracocha is attributed with the
victory against the Chancas, whom he had defeated and saved the capital of Cuzco.
1438 - 1471 Pachacuti (Yupanqui Pachacuti or Yupanqui Pachacútec)
Creator of Tahuantinsuyo, during his rule, the Inca Empire reached its highest level of development.
One of the greatest and most venerated Inca rulers, revised the Inca calendar and supposedly the constructor of Machu Picchu.
1471 - 1493 Túpac Inca Yupanqui (Tópa Inca)
The son of Pachacuti, probably the constructor of Choquequirao, also known as the "Sacred Sister of Machu Picchu".
1493 - 1527 Huayna Cápac
The last Inca ruler who had been in place before the arrival of the Spaniards.
1527 - 1532 Huascár
Huascár ruled in the Southern parts of the Inca Empire following his father's death.
He rivaled his brother Atahualpa and the empire became divided.
1527 - 1532 then 1532 - 1533 Atahualpa as sole ruler
Ruled the northern parts of the Empire and in the succession fight with his brother, he naively accepted
Spanish help. Atahualpa had his own brother Huascár murdered after that he managed to take over the Empire.
Tragically, the Spaniards betrayed him and brutally murdered him.
1525 or 1533 Tópa Huallpa
Founder of the Vilcabamba Kingdom/State, in a valley beyond the Cordillera Vilcabamba, northwest of the Urubamba Valley.
1533 - 1544 Manco Cápac II. (Manco Inca Yupanqui)
Had been crowned the new Inca ruler by Francisco Pizarro in 1534.
Because he was used by the Spaniards and was abused of, he had rebelled
against them, uniting many Incas.
Manco Cápac II. had been one of the most powerful Inca rulers. Also, the
strongest opponent of the Spaniards.
Manco Cápac II. had escaped from Cuzco and founded the fortress of
Vilcabamba, where he had taken refuge and had periodically fought the
powerful armoured Spanish forces. He had been successful in several
battles against the Spaniards, including the reclaiming of Cuzco for
In the end, he had fallen victim in 1544 to Diego de Almagro, who had
1545 - 1560 Sayri Túpac
Successor of Manco Cápac II., put in place by Diego de Almagro.
1560 - 1570 Titu Cusi Yupanqui
1571 - 1572 Túpac Amaru
The last Inca rule. Killed in 1572, when the Spaniards had managed to
conquer the Vilcabamba and finally gained full control over all of the
In 1445 Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (the ninth Inca) began conquest of
the Titicaca regions. He incorporated and developed what was left from
the Tiwanaku patterns of culture, and the Inca officials were
superimposed upon the existing local officials. Quechua was made the
official language and sun worship the official religion. So, the last
traces of the Tiwanaku civilization were integrated or deleted.
the Inca empire at its maximum expansion.
Tiwanaku - a city lost in time.
The pillars in the calendar wall track the course of the setting sun throughout the year.
Each pillar corresponds to one of the 11 chasquis on the frieze on the Sun Gate.
The Tiwanaku calendar represents one of the greatest achievements of Tiwanaku and the world.
Tiwanaku location co-ordinates
16° 33' 17"S 068° 40' 25"W Google maps
Above, satellite image of the Kalasasaya compound and
the outline of the Akapana pyramid.
The fine white line shows true north and true east. It is noticeable
that the Kalasasaya compound,
which is the oldest part of Tiwanaku and used a calendar of 20 months
is aligned slightly west of North while the Akapana pyramid
is aligned slightly east of North. Arthur Posnansky based upon
surveying of sight lines within the Kalasasaya before its
reconstruction, i.e. based upon the angles created by the standing
thought that the Kalasasaya dated to around 15,000BC. Modern radio carbon dating
suggests that the Kalasasaya might date to around 800 to 400BC while the Akapana and
Puma Punku may date to around 500 to 600AD.
According to Posnansky, the east and west walls of the Kalasasaya
had an orientation of 358° 53' 30", making it slightly west of north.
Above, plan of Kalasasaya compound according to H.S.Bellamy.
The length of the eastern side, 118.66m (389.3ft) could be considered as 320 Egyptian remen of 14.58 inches.
The length from the eastern wall to the western calendar wall of 135.26m (443.7664ft) could be considered as
365.24 Egyptian remen and as relating to the days in a year.
Above, plan of the Akapana pyramid, the measurements taken by George Squier (1877)
suggests one side was 360 cubits representing a mathematical year
and the other 365.24 cubits representing the actual year.
Above, dating according to scheme of five stages.
Above, radio carbon dating of Kalasasaya, said to be 800 to 400BC but one figure is 1990 to 1730BC.
David Forbes writing in 1870 comments "the
magnificent ruins at Tiahuanaco.... an examination of which, however,
leads to the conclusion that they are probably of two very different
dates, the one being evidently earlier and of a much ruder character
the other, which is of vastly superior workmanship. Although these
ruins are by the older Spanish writers represented
as being of immense antiquity, or, as they frequently express it,
works of a period before there was a sun in the heavens
(Diego D'Avalos Y Figuroa, in Miscel. Austral - Lima 1602 "obra de
antes que hubiese sol en el cielo"), it appears that part of these
were not even completed.....
In the first place I may mention that
the stone of which the buildings and sculptures are formed is of two
different characters. The one is a light red sandstone, which forms
the hills in the immediate neighbourhood, ... The
other stone however is very different in nature, being a hard,
tough, and compact volcanic rock, precisely the same as what was
Andesite.... and which is a true Trachydolorite. Not withstanding
its great hardness, most of the sculptured work,
the great monolithic portals and some of the finer figures, are
made of this rock; and to this day they retain all of the sharpness of
and, to a considerable extent, even the original polish on their
surfaces; whilst a few others, made of the sandstone before alluded to,
are in a very dilapadated condition."
George Squier describes the stones thus-
"The stones composing the structures of Tiahuanuco, as already said,
are mainly red sandstone, slate-colored trachyte, and
a dark, hard basalt. None of these rocks are found in situ on
the plain, but there has been much needless speculation as to
whence they were obtained. There are great cliffs of red sandstone
about five leagues to the north of the ruins, on the road
to the Desaguadero ; and, on the isthmus of Yunguyo, connecting
the peninsula of Copacabana with the main-land, are found
both basaltic and trachytic rocks, identical with the stones in
the ruins. Many blocks, hewn or partially hewn, are scattered
over the isthmus."
"The first thing that strikes the visitor in the village of Tiahuanuco
is the great number of beautifully cut stones, built
into the rudest edifices, and paving the squalidest courts. They
are used as lintels, jambs, seats, tables, and as receptacles for water.
The church is mainly built of them ; the cross in front of
it stands on a stone pedestal which shames the symbol it supports
in excellence of workmanship. On all sides are vestiges
of antiquity from the neighbouring ruins, which have been a real
quarry, whence have been taken the cut stones, not only for
Tiahuanuco and all the villages and churches of its valley, but
for erecting the cathedral of La Paz, the capital of Bolivia, situated
in the deep valley of one of the streams falling into the
river Beni, twenty leagues distant. And what is true here is
also true of most parts of the Sierra. The monuments of the
past have furnished most of the materials for the public edifices, the bridges, and highways of the present day.
The ruins of Tiahuanuco have been regarded by all students
of American antiquities as in many respects the most interesting and important,
and at the same time most enigmatical, of
any on the continent. They have excited the admiration and
wonder alike of the earliest and latest travellers, most of whom,
vanquished in their attempts to penetrate the mystery of their
origin, have been content to assign them an antiquity beyond
that of the other monuments of America, and to regard them
as the solitary remains of a civilization that disappeared before
that of the Incas began, and contemporaneous with that of
Egypt and the East. Unique, yet perfect in type and harmonious in style, they appear to be the work of a people who
were thorough masters of an architecture which had no infancy, passed through no period of growth, and of which we find
no other examples. Tradition, which mumbles more or less intelligibly of the origin of many other American monuments, is
dumb concerning these. The wondering Indians told the first
Spaniards that "they existed before the sun shone in the heavens," that they were raised by giants,
or that they were the remains of an impious people whom an angry Deity had
converted into stone because they had refused hospitality to his
vicegerent and messenger"
Above, statue from Tiwanaku, note the crab design on chest and the turban on head.
THE TRAVELS OF PEDRO CIEZA DE LEON (1549)
"There are other things to be said concerning Tiahuanaco, which I pass
over, concluding with a statement of my belief that this ruin is the
most ancient in all Peru. It is asserted that these edifices were
commenced before the time of the Yncas, and I have heard some Indians
that the Yncas built their grand edifices at Cuzco on the plan which
they had observed at the wall near these ruins.
They even say that the first Yncas thought of establishing their court
at Tiahuanaco. Another remarkable thing is,
that in all this district there are no quarries whence the numerous
stones can have been brought, the carrying of
which must have required many people. I asked the natives, in presence
of Juan de Varagas (who holds them in
encomienda), whether these edifices were built in the time of the
Yncas, and they laughed at the question,
affirming that they were made before the Yncas ever reigned, but that
they could not say who made them.
They added that they had heard from their fathers that all we saw was
done in one night. From this, and
from the fact that they also speak of bearded men on the island of
Titicaca, and of others who built the
edifice of Vinaque, it may, perhaps, be inferred that, before the Yncas
reigned, there was an intelligent
race who came from some unknown part, and who did these things. Being
few, and the natives many, they may all
have been killed in the wars."
Above, stones of the Kalasasaya as it appeared in 1851 (Von Tschudi), view from west side
The Akapana hill is in the background.
Above, the Gate of the Sun (reverse side) and calendar wall from R. Inwards "Temple of the Andes" 1884.
View from outside the north-west corner
Above, plan of the Kalasasaya and Akapana pyramid from R. Inwards "Temple of the Andes" 1884.
Above, reconstruction of Tiwanaku from R. Inwards "Temple of the Andes" 1884.
Above, stones of the Kalasasaya before reconstruction
Above, solstice pillar, (northeast side) photo, Posnansky -
"completely eroded block - in its time well carved - above
the farthest corner upon which the sun rises at the winter solstice."
Posnansky calculated the age of Tiwanaku in the following manner,
"it has been noted that when the observer stands at the center of the
west wall of Kalasasaya of the Second Period, the north and south
pillars of the east wall are so located that the sun would rise at the
solstices on the outer corners of these pillars. Also approximately at
the center of the building, let us say at the middle of the monumental
perron, the sun appears on the morning of the equinoxes.
Now then: if, at the solstices, one observes the sunrise without the aid
of instruments, it will be noted that it does indeed still come up on
the corners of these pillars. However, if we examine this phenomenon
with precision instruments, we note a difference of approximately
eighteen angular minutes, which represents the change in the obliquity
of the ecliptic between that of the period in which Kalasasaya was built
and that which it has today.
This difference has served as the basis for the calculation of the age
of Tihuanacu. From what has been discussed in previous chapters, there
is not the least doubt that this building was indeed built on the
astronomic meridian and its angles were the points marked exactly by the
amplitude of the sun between the solstices. These few introductory
words will explain to the reader in a summary fashion how the basis for
calculating the probable age of Tihuanacu was obtained. However, in
practice, the question is not as simple as the foregoing lines might
The aforementioned difference of eighteen angular minutes noted in
Kalasasaya is the basis for our calculations and this coefficient was
applied to a curve constituted on the basis of the formula of
extrapolation recommended by the Ephemeris Conference of Paris in the
year 1911 and which is as follows:
eps (t) = 23° 27' 8.26" - 468.44" t - 0.60" t2 + 1.83" t3
If this curve should vary with future studies and trials in the coming
centuries of exact astronomy, then the
calculation in regard to the age of Tihuanacu would also vary. However,
in any event, even leaving aside the calculation by astronomical
methods, the age of Tihuanacu, a figure somewhere beyond ten thousand
years (the age of the Second and Third periods) will always be, on the
basis of geology, paleontology and anthropology, very great --- no
matter by what method or standard it is judged."
Above, satellite photo with superimposed sight lines showing the positions for calculating the
solstice sight lines described by Posnansky.
Above, diagram showing how the solstice angles were originally determined
in the Kalasasaya compound.
Posnansky considered Tiwanaku to have been constructed
in three stages or periods, centuries apart...
Above, to the west (sunset) the inner blue triangle dotted line shows sight lines based
upon drawing to the left, the solid blue line shows sight line to present western wall "of the third period"
based on observation block in centre of Kalasasaya. The yellow lines show sight lines to the original corner
stones which Posnansky calls "of the second period". To the east, (sunrise) the yellow sight line is to the
original solstice pillars of the compound. The viewing positions are marked by large stone blocks which were
recovered on site.
Plan with astronomical angles within the Kalasasaya. This plan appears to be by Posnansky, the
position "B" is presently occupied by the large block of stone used as the viewing point and which Posnansky
says was intended as a base for the Gate of the Sun which would have been set into a wall here. Note the angle incorrectly goes
to the end of the terrace instead of the end pillar on the wall.
Posnansky gives the following dimensions for the inner "Sanctissimum" -
"The 'sanctissimum' --- a small subterranean temple ---is composed in its circumference of three terraces
which in turn form three steps by means of which this construction is reduced and deepened toward the
interior part. - "its size is: length 71.80 meters; width 63.60 meters." (72.1 x 64.2 m on the above drawing).
We can also scale the drawing and we find the dimensions of the innermost quadrangle as 100 x 90 Sumerian cubits of 19.8".
Posnansky gives a dimension of 129 metres for the length
of the Kalasasaya from the eastern wall to the western edge of the original quadranngle which he
calls "of the second period" - Posnansky - "The total length of Kalasasaya from east to west without
the balcony wall is: 128 m. 74 cm." -
(128.75 metres in the above drawing)
a length of 135 metres (135.54 metres in above drawing) for the distance from the eastern wall to the
row of calendar stones shown in the drawing which he calls the calendar wall "of the third period".
The position of the calendar wall
shown also represents an earlier wall, now demolished.
Posnansky - "AFTER HAVING EXCAVATED IT. Kalasasaya of the Second Period is 128 meters 74 centimeters long
by 118 meters 26 centimeters wide." (128.75 x 118.31 metres in the above drawing) - this refers
to the original quadrangle of the second period, and does not include the row of stones shown on the above drawing
outside the original quadrilateral and which represents the present calendar wall which he calls "of the third period".
(Posnansky - "The west balcony wall which belonged to the SECOND PERIOD, is not in existence at the present time and
we have found only remains of the short corner wall of the south side. On June 18, 1939, we discovered remains of
the north side..")
Sometimes Posnansky's data is difficult to understand due to lack of
to the original books and drawings.... there may also be errors in
translation since in one part he says in the
"the sun set between pillars "K" and "A" about the solstices; as for
pillars "B" and "J" they observed that the sun
set between them about a month before and after these times",
while later he says
"one notes that the sun sets in the center of the pillars "A" and "K" at
the solstices" which is correct,
the sun is intended to set over the centre of the pillars, but elsewhere
Posnansky describes incorrectly
how the sun set in the spaces between the pillars..... but then these
spaces were also occupied by a wall
as the pillars themselves were carved on their sides to receive the
blocks forming a continuous wall..... Posnansky also thought that above
the pillars was a continuous lintel which supported small windows
through which the sun may have shone at the appropriate times.
The intersection of sight line
"W" on the western edge of the compound is the point for observation of the original solstice stones
on the east side "of the second period" while "B" appears to be where the "observation block"
which Posnansky thought may have been built into a wall and intended to receive the Gate of the Sun was located.
We can note on the plan of Kalasasaya that the entrance staircase or "perron" is not in the exact
centre of the eastern wall.
Posnansky offers this explanation
"The sun not being in the center of the orbit but in a center of the eclipse in which the earth turns about
the sun the earth needs a greater length of time to go from the autumnal equinox to the winter
solstice and return to the vernal equinox than to go from the vernal equinox to the summer solstice and
return to the autumnal equinox. That is to say, that for the moving of the earth from the twenty-first
of March (autumnal equinox) to the twenty-third of September (vernal equinox) it needs 186 days, 11 hours
(winter) while to travel from the vernal equinox to the autumnal equinox it needs only 178 days, 19 hours
(summer). Thus there is a difference of 7 days and 16 hours between the winter and summer semesters. This
is the crux of the problem as to why the perron of Tihuanacu is not in the center of Kalasasaya but is
located 1 m. 116 mm. to the north. Thus, since they wished to divide the year into four equal parts, they
made further observations in order to determine where the sun would rise at the exact middle of the year,
on the twenty-fourth of March and the twenty-first of September, and they then noted --- surely with no
little surprise --- that the sun did not rise in the center of the temple but 1 m. 116 mm. to the north.
With this observation they were perhaps the first men in the world to note the perihelion and the aphelion,
or the eccentricity of the terrestrial orbit."
From this "viewing stone", observations could be made of
the sun setting over the pillars of the calendar wall each evening.
According to Posnansky, the block of stone which is now split in two,
was originally at ground level and intended as a base upon which the
Gate of the Sun would be constructed.
The block of stone which Posnansky says was originally
part of a wall and intended
as a base upon which the Gate of the Sun would be constructed,
presumably the same stone seen in previous photo set up as an
Above, solstice pillar, photo, Posnansky.
"pillar of the winter solstice of the third period. On the upper part
this shows part of a small window where...
the sun appeared
for a moment at the winter solstice in the form of a vertical, luminous ray." ...
Naturally, that pilaster was not isolated as it is today, but formed the corner of an external wall of the "sanctissimum".
This pillar was at the north-east corner of "the sanctissimum" ---
"a small subterranean temple" in the centre of the Kalasasaya compound.
Posnansky gives its internal dimensions as: length 71.80 meters; width 63.60 meters and
external dimensions as
"seventy-two meters, ten centimeters long by sixty-four meters, twenty centimeters wide."
Above, stones of the Kalasasaya before modern reconstruction,
photo by Max Uhle 1892 loooking towards the eastern wall.
Above, stones of the Kalasasaya before modern reconstruction,
photo by French mission 1903
looking towards the western wall.
Above, perimeter wall of the Kalasasaya after reconstruction.
The reconstructed inner compound or "sanctissimum" can be seen,
the calendar wall is on the far left (west) side.
Above, perimeter wall of the Kalasasaya after reconstruction.
It was assumed that the original stones beween the upright pillars
had been carried away, so the wall was rebuilt in the 1960's
Above, stones of the Kalasasaya in the time of Posnansky,
note entrance pillars and steps on the right and the church in the village in the background.
Posnansky gives the following figures for the Kalasasaya
1. The total length of Kalasasaya from east to west without the balcony wall is: 128 m. 74 cm.
2. The total width from north to south is: 118 m. 26 cm.
Above, entrance to the "Sun Temple of Kalasasaya" with
comments by Posnansky. The photograph appears to be one taken by the
French mission in 1903.
Above, entrance to the Kalasasaya before modern reconstruction.
Above, Posnansky's plan drawing of the Kalasasaya entrance.
Above, entrance to the Kalasasaya after restoration,
the modern archaeologists appear to have followed Posnansky's plan.
Above, entrance to the Kalasasaya, reconstruction envisaged by Edmund Kiss, 1937.
Above, interior of the Kalasasaya, reconstruction envisaged by Edmund Kiss, 1937.
Above, plan of the Kalasasaya, ruins with observation angles by Edmund Kiss, 1937.
On this drawing, an angle is shown from the original position of the Gate of the Sun (A) west to the ends of the calendar
wall terrace whereas the angle should go from an observation stone inside the compound to the end of the calendar
stones themselves. See drawing on following page.
Above, plan of the Kalasasaya, reconstruction envisaged by Edmund Kiss, 1937.
Above, oblique view of the Kalasasaya, reconstruction envisaged by Edmund Kiss, 1937.
Above, plan of the palace of the sarcophagus, reconstruction envisaged by Edmund Kiss, 1937.
Above, palace of the sarcophagus, reconstruction envisaged by Edmund Kiss, 1937.