Headgear of Amazon indians in comparison to headgear of "Sea Peoples"

headgear amazon indian feathered headdress headgear sea peoples headgear amazon indian feathered headdress
Above centre, headgear of "the sea peoples"
left and right, headgear of Amazon indians


link to Sea Peoples page

link to the Sea Peoples "On their heads were high feathered headresses" and the Philistines become "Phoenicians"


the invading ships are overturned


the prisoners are led away


the prisoners are led away

In 1208 before our era Libyans and five other groups—the Shardana, Shekelesh, Akawasha, Lukka and Tursha—invaded the Nile Delta. An inscription on a wall erected by the Egyptian pharaoh Merneptah in the temple of Amun at Karnak describes the Libyans’ allies as “northerners” or “of the Countries of the Sea.” So modern scholars have come to call these invaders the Sea Peoples.

Some of these Sea Peoples had been known in the eastern Mediterranean for more than a century. A letter written to the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten (c. 1350–1334 before our era) refers to piratical raids on coastal towns in Cyprus and Syria by the Lukka people. The Shardana also had launched surprise attacks by sea, occasionally pillaging Egypt’s coast from the time of Akhenaten’s father, Amenhotep III (c. 1388–1350 before our era). Ramesses II (c. 1279–1212 before our era), too, complained about Shardana pirates who “came boldly [sailing] in their warships from the midst of the sea, none being able to withstand them.” Because of the Shardana’s reputation as fierce warriors, 19th Dynasty pharaohs sometimes hired them as mercenaries; there were even Shardana in Ramesses II’s royal bodyguard.

About a generation after the Libyan-Sea Peoples’ invasion of Egypt, Ramesses III (c. 1182–1151 before our era) met an even greater menace. Heading toward Egypt was a coalition of marauding groups that had progressed through Anatolia and northern Syria. Inscriptions and reliefs (see photos above) on Ramesses III’s mortuary temple at Medinet Habu record the threat:

The foreign countries made a conspiracy in their islands. All at once the lands were removed and scattered in the fray. No land could stand before their arms, from Hatti [the Hittite Empire], Kode [Cilicia], Carchemish [a city on the Euphrates in Syria], Arzawa [a Hittite vassal state in western Anatolia], and Alashiya [Cyprus] on, being cut off at (one time). A camp was set up in one place in Amurru [coastal Syria]. They desolated its people, and its land was like that which has never come into being. They were coming forward toward Egypt, while the flame was prepared before them. Their confederation was the Peleset, Tjeker, Shekelesh, Denyen and Weshesh lands united. They laid their hands upon the land as far as the circuit of the earth, their hearts confident and trusting: “Our plans will succeed!”
(trans. John Wilson, in James B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament [Princeton, 1955])

Ramesses III defeated the Sea Peoples’ army, probably in Canaan. The Sea Peoples’ naval fleet, however, sailed on to Egypt, where it was decimated by the Egyptians. The Harris Papyrus, a long record of the piety and benefactions of Ramesses III, states that the pharaoh settled the Sea Peoples as mercenaries in garrison towns of Palestine and Syria. Soon after his death, Egypt lost control over Canaan. The garrisons of Sea Peoples, perhaps supplemented by more recent arrivals, gained control of a number of coastal sites in the Levant.

Who were these mysterious tribes?

Of the many groups mentioned in the Egyptian texts, only two can be identified with a high degree of probability. The Peleset were likely the Philistines, and the Lukka were probably the ancestors of the Lycians, who in classical times inhabited southwestern Anatolia. According to the Bible, the Philistines came to Canaan from Caphtor (see, for example, Deuteronomy 2:23), the place called Kaptara in Akkadian texts and Keftiu in Egyptian ones. Other biblical texts refer to Philistines as “Cherethites” (probably Cretans) and to part of the Philistine coast as “the Cretan Negev” (1 Samuel 30:14). source

headgear amazon indian feathered headdress headgear amazon indian feathered headdress
Above, comparison of headgear and statues at Tula, Mexico, and Tiwanaku, Bolivia

Assyrian eagled headed god Amazonian circular headdress Aztec eagle head mask Elamite headdress 1000bc Persian headdress Indian high headdress
Above, Assyrian god with eagle head and feathered headdress, Amazonian feathered headdress,
Aztec warrior with eagle head mask, Elamite headdress 1000bc, Persian headgear, Indian headdress

Sea Peoples high headdress
Above, Sea Peoples with high feathered headdresses.


atlantisbolivia.org