America's Lost Civilisation

Earlier studies using high resolution Google earth satellite imagery shows extensive remains of ancient canals, ponds, artificial islands and harbours all along the banks of the rivers Parana, Paraguay, Amazon, the Pantanal, Tabasco in Mexico and the Louisiana seaboard. The Louisiana canals are gradually being submerged by the waters of the Gulf of Mexico as a result of the numerous canals created by oil exploration companies which also makes it difficult to distinguish between ancient canals and those of modern times in the Louisiana zone.

Some views from Google Earth

double lane ancient canal underwater Louisiana
Above, sunken canal complex on the Louisiana seaboard. These seem to be mostly former oil comany canals, some used for oil pipelines and other for access to drilling and exploration rigs. see Louisiana canals page

circular harbour Louisiana
Above, amongst the oil company canal complexes, there are intriguing sites such as this one which looks like circular harbour complex from ancient times.. see Louisiana canals page

Louisiana ice age shoreline
Above, the ice age shoreline (dotted) compared to the present day shoreline.

The race of people who built the canals and artificial pond complexes of South America were not farmers, but people who chose an "aquatic" environment in a flat landscape ideal for canals, ponds, and islands as their preferred habitat.

Amazon basin flooded
Above, in the wet season, vasts tracts of Amazonia and the Beni region of Bolivia become submerged by floodwaters. The peoples of the Beni flood plains, for example, lived on artificial mounds and built long straight causeways and canals for transportation, they also created great numbers of huge artificial ponds probably used for the capture or storage of fish stocks.

fish farming bolivia
pre-Columbian fish farming in Bolivia and Amazon by Clark Erickson PhD

golden dorado fishing in Bolivia
golden dorado fishing in Bolivia

artificial ponds beni zone
Example of artificial ponds in Beni region of Bolivia. The lower left hand pond measures approximately 4 kilometres or 8000 Sumerian cubits which would be 20 furlongs or 2.5 miles long. click for Beni ponds page

When European explorers travelled through Amazonia in the eighteenth century, they thought they were in pristine forest. They were unaware that the region at one time had a population in the millions although Spanish Conquistador Francisco de Orellana who travelled the Amazon in 1542 from the Andes to the sea had reported large populations including stone built cities.

rio Amazon
Close-up study of areas of the Amazon suggests a great number of natural ponds have been adapted for use as artificial ponds and served by a network of access canals
click for rio Amazon page

earthmovers of the amazon
earthmovers of the Amazon by Charles C. Mann

With the clearance of Amazonian forest areas in recent years, large earthworks which came to be called "geoglyphs" came into view. Obviously, at the time these earthqorks were constructed, they were not constructed in forests but in clear land, also they were not "geoglyphs" in the sense of giant drawings on the ground, but had practical purposes such as residential areas or water storage/fish farming etc.

geoglif amazon
the pristine myth by William M. Denevan Department of Geography, University of Wisconsin

geoglyphs of the amazon
geoglyphs of the Amazon

geoglyph acre region
Typical earthwork called a "geoglyph" from the Acre region of Brasil, near the border with Beni and Bolivia

geoglyph amazonas
Typical "geoglyph" earthworks,

Amazon rivers map
Above, the river Amazon and it's tributaries provided transportation routes into the heartlands of South America, including via the rivers Madeira, Madre de Dios, Beni and Mamore into the Beni region of Bolivia. Note how the canal Casiquiare joins the rio Orinocco to the rio Negro and thus the Amazon.

ancient canal joining orinocco to amazon
Above, this section of ancient engineered canal joins the river Orinocco to the river Amazon see canal Orinocco to Amazon page

ancient canal complex Tabasco, Mexico
Above, example of man-made canal in Amazonia, there are many examples linking rivers and tributaries and giving access to oxbow lakes and ponds. see canals Amazon rio page

rio Amazon
The upper entrance to the interlink (Auati Paraná) joining a tributary to the Amazon showing signs of canalisation. see canals Amazon rio west page

canal and pond formations rio parana
ancient canals in the rio Parana see canals Parana rio page

canal and pond formations rio parana
Example of artificial ponds and canalised rivers alongside rio Parana. The oval pond is about 125 metres or about 450 Sumerian cubits long.

canal and pond formations rio parana
This tributary running down into the rio Parana has been heavily modified with canals, islands and ponds.

canal and pond formations rio parana
The complex continues alongside the rio Parana.

rio Paraguay channels
Above, example from rio Paraguay showing how complexes of river bends have been adapted with transverse channels to provide river access to oxbow lakes converting them into ponds and harbours adapted from the original natural levees... see canals Paraguay rio page

artificial canals linking oxbow lakes Beni
Typical utilised oxbow lake formations in the Beni region of the rio Mamore. Interconnecting feeder channels have been dug to supply the naturally curved lakes with water and access.... see Beni page

oxbow lakes Amazonia
Many oxbow lakes appear to be joined by interconnecting feeder channels which also give water access from the main river. ....

Pantanal canals, islands and ponds
Example of artificial ponds and islands in the Pantanal region of Paraguay. see Pantanal page

louisiana canals, islands and ponds
Example of artificial ponds and canals in the Gulf Coast region of Louisiana. see canals Louisiana page

earthquake geoglyph agriculture west of la Paz area
Above, example of hilltop surrounded by the remains of concentric irrigation channels and remains of fossilised agriculture system on the Altiplano, Bolivia see earthquakes page

earthquake geoglyph agriculture west of la Paz area
Above, in this close-up view the fossilised agriculture system appears as parallel embankments and earthquake fissures can be clearly seen.

earthquake built over zone la Paz area
Above, this photo clearly shows how the ancient, disused system of agriculture has been abandoned and built over by later peoples who constructed walled enclosures (the thin, sharp lines), hence site visitors usually only see evidence of the later peoples.

hilltop with concentric irrigation channels Peru
Above, This ringed hill on the Peruvian side of the Altiplano shows the remains of concentric irrigation channels which would originally have supplied terraces and agriculture on the hillside, now disappeared.

earthquake zone south of Turco
Above, close-up view of concentric rings shows these circles to be the remains of concentric ancient irrigation channels on this ridge south of Turco near Oruro, Bolivia.

ancient canals Tabasco Mexico
The above canal in Tabasco, Mexico measures 208ft wide, the same as two sections of similar canal near Oruro, Bolivia.

Desaguadero canal oblique view
above, oblique view of section of unexplained canal 200ft wide near Oruro, Bolivia.

Paria canal width 200ft
above, the satellite measures another section of canal near Oruro as 200 feet (60 metres)wide. see Paria, Oruro canals page

This plot in Tabasco, Mexico measures 1650 feet per side which would be 1000 Sumerian cubits of 19.8" per side
or 10 x 10 "stades" of 100 sumerian cubits per side. see canals, Tabasco view page

tucume plots 2400cubits long
above, this block in Tres Zapotes, Veracruz, Mexico measures 1650 feet wide so is 1000 Sumerian cubits square and is divided into strips of 200 x 1000 cubits i.e. 330ft wide, which would also be 96 x 480 Mayan hunabs.

tucume plots 200 cubits wide
above, these adjacent plots near Tucume, Peru are 330 feet wide which is 200 Sumerian cubits of 19.8" or 1 stade of 330ft as found on the Bolivian Altiplano. see Peru, cubits and calendar page

This plot in Tabasco, Mexico measures 3,300 feet square, making it 10 x 10 "stades" of 330ft - each would contain 10 x 10 of the 330ft plots found on the Bolivian Altiplano.

These channels on the Bolivian Altiplano north west of La Paz region are in regular plots of 330ft confirming the use of the 330ft stade to describe the rectangular plain next to Lake Poopo.

geoglyph 330ft
the above earthwork in Acre, Brasil (not far from the Beni and Bolivian border) measures 200 Sumerian cubits wide.....

the above earthwork in acre, Brasil (not far from the Beni and Bolivian border) measures 500 Sumerian cubits wide.....

Teotihuacan pyramids 2400 Sumerian feet
The satellite measures the intended distance between the Pyramid of the Sun and the Pyramid of the Moon in Teotihuacan, Mexico, as 2,640 feet which would be 2400 Sumerian feet. In Sumerian units, it would also be 1600 cubits, 4000 links or 4800 shusi.

For the ancient city of Teotihuacan in Mexico, archaeologists Drewitt (1969, 1987) and Drucker (1971,1974, 1977's) proposed it had been set out in units of 805 mm (31.692"). Unknown to them, the unit they proposed was 48 Sumerian units called shusi of 0.66" or 4 x links of 12 shusi. In the units of Drewitt and Drucker the distance between the above Pyramid of the Sun and Pyramid of the Moon would be 1,000 of these units of 48 shusi, confirming that Drewitt and Drucker had made a correct assessment, but using different multiples of shusi.

Teotihuacan  pyramids 3600 Sumerian feet
The satellite measures the intended distance distance between the pyramid of the Sun and the pyramid in the Temple of Quetzalcoatl (also called the "Citadel") as 3,960 feet which would be 3600 Sumerian feet. In Sumerian units it would also be 2400 cubits, 6000 links or 72000 shusi. In the units of Drewitt and Drucker which was 4 x links or 48 shusi, it would be 1,500 of these units, confirming again that Drewitt and Drucker had made a correct assessment, but using different multiples of shusi.
see Teotihuacan cubits page

In Tiwanaku, Bolivia, Artur Posnansky suggested a unit called a ‘loka’ of 175 cm. Unknown to him, three ‘loka’ of 175 cm are equal to 10 Egyptian Royal Cubits of 525 mm. Others say a ‘loka’ measures 600mm - but this would be 2 x Egyptian feet of 300mm. Both "Egyptian" cubits and "Sumerian" cubits can often be found together at the same sites in the Americas because the Sumerian cubit is 24/25ths of the Egyptian cubit, a field which is 100 Sumerian cubits can be easily divided into 100, 50 or 25 Sumerian cubits as whole numbers, or as 96, 48, 24, 12, 6 or 3 Egyptian cubits as whole numbers.

puma punka 500 sumerian double yards
above, the Puma Punka in Tiwanaku measured 500 Sumerian feet or 100 Sumerian double yards wide.....
see atlantis stade page for explantion of Sumerian and Egyptian cubits

Tiwanaku Calendar
Above, The Mayans and Aztecs are well known for their 20 day calendars. In the oldest part of Tiwanaku in Bolivia there existed a solar calendar of 20 months which every three years also intermeshed with a lunar calendar of 40 months.
Tiwanaku gate of sun icons
Above, when the sun reached the end of the pillars,
it appeared to "stand still" before beginning
its journey back in the opposite direction.
see lost calendar andes page

   Selection of related studies,
   rio Parana canals, ponds and islands    rio Paraguay levees canals    rio Parana delta canals   Corrientes
   rio Amazon to Manaus   rio Amazon west from Manaus   rio Orinocco to Amazon canal
   flooding dates on the Altiplano    atlantis canals on the Altiplano    canals gallery   Chipaya canals gallery
   canals in Peru   Caral, Peru containment canal   Tabasco, Mexico canals gallery   canals Louisiana
   Paria, Oruro containment canals   canal to sea (lago UruUru)   Pantanal    Beni, Moxos gallery

   geoforms - Bolivian altiplano    agricultural variations on the Altiplano    ringed hilltops   earthquakes
   contour forms/irrigation Peru   contourforms/irigation Bolivia    Bombo earthquake route    Bombo route oblique views

   Atlantis stade - Egyptian and Sumerian cubits   Tiwanaku cubits    Peru cubits and calendar    cubits between altiplano canals
   Teotihuacan measuring unit    Teotihuacan citadel measuring units
   Chichen Itza and El Castillo measuring units    Monte Alban, measuring units    Atlantis stones gallery
   the Tiwanaku soli-lunar calendar    the Muisca calendar     Lost Calendar of the Andes     Decoding the quipu mathematics

south america northern map
Above, political map with modern boundaries. Maps with latitude and longitude are more useful for identifying sites from Google Earth imagery.

   J.M. Allen, June 2011

sailing to the lost city of atlantis